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Infection Control Filters

Hemofiltration HF or hemodiafiltration HDF modalities require the use of dialyzers of high permeability and, at the same time, monitors with volume control and a dual pump. Replacement fluid is a further cost, is the main reason for abandoning HF, and was a key constraint on the initial HDF technique, with volumes ranging between 3 and 10 L. In the s, the introduction of online HDF techniques using the dialysis fluid itself as a replacement solution has meant a revolution in HD units.

It has taken another 10 years to renovate and upgrade water treatment, introduce specific monitors, and incorporate safety filters to ensure ultrapure dialysate. Convection volume was defined as the sum of the replacement volume and the intradialytic weight loss achieved. To answer this question, complete the checklist in Table 1.

If the answer to all of the questions is yes, you are able to provide this treatment modality. If the answer to one or more of the questions is no, the treatment cannot be started until each point has been resolved.


This checklist does not include training, because the current technology has been greatly simplified and is easy to use. Online HDF techniques constitute progress toward renal replacement therapy that is most similar to the native kidney. These techniques offer a higher clearance of uremic substances with a greater range of molecular size. The possible clinical benefits that convection techniques can provide are better control of hyperphosphatemia, malnutrition, inflammation, anemia, infectious complications, joint pain, amyloidosis associated with dialysis, intradialytic tolerance, insomnia, irritability, restless leg syndrome, polyneuropathy, and itching.

Observational studies, adjusted for demographic and comorbidity factors, have shown that a lower risk of death is associated with online HDF 2 — 5. In addition, three large prospective randomized clinical trials RCTs have been conducted to compare survival outcomes in prevalent patients.

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Online HDF was associated with a reduction of 13 percent to 16 percent in all-cause mortality and 25 percent to 27 percent in cardiovascular mortality 9 — In all large RCTs, the connvective volume seemed to be an important issue. Convective target volume should therefore be the maximum possible for the individual characteristics and parameters of each patient dialysis.

However, bear in mind that this recommendation is based in secondary analysis, and therefore there could be a selection bias. Patients receiving greater convective volume are those in better overall condition, with good vascular access and less diabetes or cardiovascular disease.

Hemodiafiltration in BC

In the absence of more conclusive scientific evidence, it seems a reasonable and affordable recommendation that should be confirmed with future clinical trials. However, the use of a native fistula or graft has decreased because of greater patient age and the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

Table of contents

The use of a catheter means a lower blood flow Qb and convective volume. In a multicenter study, only a third of the patients with catheters achieved a minimum of 21 L of replacement volume target Therefore, catheter use should not be seen as an obstacle for HDF, but increasing dialysis duration must be considered. The main limiting factor for convective volume is Qb. In postdilution mode, the maximum recommended infusion flow is 33 percent of the Qb value.


Achieving adequate convective volumes may be complicated in patients with limited Qb. Some authors have suggested that the prescription of Qb is more a matter of treatment policy in each dialysis unit than the characteristics of the patients themselves New dialysis machines that allow an automatic infusion flow Qi to maximize the convective volume have reduced the risk of hemoconcentration and have increased convective volume 14 — Online HDF needs high-flux dialyzers. Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies Comparison of Post- and Pre-dilutional Hemodiafiltration in Hemodialysis Patients The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators.

Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Last Update Posted : April 23, Study Description. Hemodiafiltration HDF is a choice of treatment modalities for patients with end-stage renal disease. Hemodiafiltration, combining diffusion and convection, may increase removal of large and middle molecule uremic toxins comparing to conventional hemodialysis.

  • Optimisation of dialysate flow in on-line hemodiafiltration | Nefrología (English Edition).
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  • Comparison of Post- and Pre-dilutional Hemodiafiltration in Hemodialysis Patients.
  • The techniques of hemodiafiltration include pre-dilution and post-dilution according to the infusion site of substitution fluid. Post-dilution HDF is most widely used because of higher removal rate of uremic toxins.

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    • However, hemoconcentration and clotting of membrane limit its further clearance of toxins. Pre-dilution may preserve membrane permeability and maintain hemodynamic status. Although lower clearance of small molecule uremic toxins, one study in Japan showed survival benefits of pre-dilution HDF, comparing to post-dilution HDF. The aim of this study was to compare pre-dilution and post-dilution HDF in terms of their clinical and biological parameters and clearance of uremic toxins by using cross-over study design.

      Study design: randomly assigned, cross-over study. Patient number: To achieve small MW clearances comparable to HD in pre-dilution HF, high exchange volumes have to be applied 60 - 90 l per treatment. Depletion effects with high exchange volumes have not been reported but cannot be excluded with the current state of knowledge. Maggiore effect lg.

      Hemodiafiltration | definition of hemodiafiltration by Medical dictionary

      Clin Nephrol , Wizemann V. Hemodiafiltration--an avenue to shorter dialysis? Contrib Nephrol. On-line hemodiafiltration with pre- and postdilution: a comparison of efficacy. Int J Artif Organs , Blood temperature and vascular stability during hemodialysis and hemofiltration.